Two main types of vacuum coating equipment
There are many kinds of vacuum coating machine, such as evaporation coating and sputtering coating, including vacuum evaporation, magnetron sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, sol-gel method, etc.
1. For evaporative coating:
Typically, heating the target causes the surface components to evaporate in the form of atomic clusters or ions, which are then deposited on the substrate surface to form a thin film through a film-forming process (scattering island structure-vagal structure layer growth).
Thickness uniformity mainly depends on:
1. Lattice matching of substrate and target
2. Substrate surface temperature
3. Evaporation power, rate
4. Vacuum degree
5. Coating time and thickness.
The composition uniformity of the evaporative coating is not easy to guarantee. The specific adjustment factors are the same as above. However, due to the limitation in principle, the component uniformity of non-single-component evaporative coatings is poor.
The uniformity of crystal orientation is as follows
1. Lattice matching degree
2. Substrate temperature
3. Evaporation rate
4. Sputtering coating can be simply understood as bombarding the target with electrons or high-energy lasers, sputtering surface components in the form of atomic clusters or ions, and then depositing them on the surface of the substrate.
There are many types of sputter coatings. Generally speaking, the difference between sputter coating and evaporation coating is that the sputtering rate will be one of the main parameters.
The compositional uniformity of laser sputtering PLD is easy to maintain, but the thickness uniformity at the atomic scale is relatively poor (because it is pulsed sputtering), and the control of crystal orientation (outer edge) growth is relatively general. with PLD
For example, the main influencing factors are: lattice matching degree between the target and the substrate, coating atmosphere (low pressure gas atmosphere), substrate temperature, laser power, pulse frequency, sputtering time, etc. For different sputtering materials and substrates
The parameters need to be determined experimentally, which are different. The quality of the coating equipment mainly depends on whether the temperature can be accurately controlled, whether it can ensure a good vacuum degree, and whether it can ensure a good vacuum chamber cleanliness.
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