There are several types of electron beam evaporation coating equipment(evaporation coationg machine)：
The electron beam bombardment heat source of the electron beam evaporation coating equipment has high beam current density and high electron beam energy density. It can reach a power density of 10⁴~10⁵w/cm² in a not too small area, so it can be used as a high melting point (up to 3000 °C or so), and can have a higher evaporation rate.
The equipment is a vacuum evaporation coating machine technology that relies on electron beam bombardment evaporation. Through different electron beam evaporation coating types, it can be divided into straight guns (Pierce guns), ring guns, hollow cathode electron guns and e-guns.
1. Straight gun
As an axially symmetric linear acceleration electron gun, the electrons of the straight gun are emitted from the filament cathode, condensed into thin beams, and accelerated by the anode in the crucible to melt and vaporize the coating material. The power range of straight guns is relatively large, ranging from hundreds of watts to hundreds of kilowatts. Some can be used for vacuum evaporation coating equipment , and some are used for vacuum smelting.
Disadvantages: Evaporation of the coating material will cause the gun body structure to be contaminated, affecting the stability of the operation, and the film will also be contaminated by the sodium ions that escape from the emitting filament.
Improvement: researched by Leybod-Heraeus in West Germany for the most recent years. The deflection magnetic field is set at the exit of the electron beam, and a set of independent air extraction system is made at the filament part to make an improved version of the straight gun, which not only completely avoids the filament Contamination of the membrane, but also conducive to improving the life of the gun.
2. Ring gun
The electron gun uses a ring-shaped cathode to emit electron beams, which are then focused and deflected, and then shot in a crucible to achieve the purpose of evaporating metal materials. The structure of the device is relatively simple.
Disadvantages: low power and efficiency, usually just a kind of equipment used in the laboratory, currently no longer used in production-type electron beam evaporation coating equipment.
3. Hollow cathode electron gun
This type of electron gun uses a plasma electron beam generated by a low-voltage, high-current hollow cathode discharge as a heating source.
Structure: Use crucible as anode and hollow tantalum tube as cathode.
4. E-type electron gun
This type of electron gun is a 270° deflection electron gun. This device overcomes the shortcomings of straight guns and is one of the most used evaporation sources for current electron beam evaporation coating equipment.
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