simulating the magnetron sputtering process for industrial applications.

by:ZHENHUA     2020-03-18
At present, there are two known technologies for the application of thin metal layers on Glass: Gas phase deposition in chemical/physical phases (CVD--
Chemical vapor deposition-
Physical Vapor Deposition.
These methods are also called \"on-
Line method \"separate\" off-line method\". On-
The wire method includes glass coating during its combustion
Cracking production process (
Diffusion of molten material on hot glass floating on tin bath of oven)
It also indicates the process of applying thin layers to glass through cvd.
On the contrary, off-
The line method is applied in the pvd method using the magnetic control and vacuum deposition after the production of the glass, usually the sputtering type.
In terms of comparative analysis of the two deposition methods, generally speaking,
The main advantages of the Line/cvd method are the wide range of choice of covering materials, and the optical properties of coated glass are better than on-
Line/CVD method.
Due to the main disadvantages, the offline method is characterized by an increase in lead time and a change in color between batches.
For this reason, most industrial research work has focused on improving the operational performance of the magnetic disc sputtering physical deposition equipment, with a particular focus on analyzing the possibility of optimizing the physical deposition process parameters for industrial production, the desired performance obtained according to different product categories and the reproduction of multiple manufacturing batches.
The sign of this study is that there is a serious competition between companies that produce RF-sputtering pvd-type equipment and between users (
Glass manufacturers)
There is very little information about this study in the relevant literature [1].
However, unlike the absence of such studies, in the relevant literature, a large number of developments have been proposed regarding theoretical and experimental studies carried out in pilot production equipment and experimental research laboratory facilities.
Unfortunately, a large number of theoretical and experimental results presented in these studies, although helpful in establishing physical deposition processes, do not apply to industrial production processes.
Because the laboratory machine/research equipment has different properties from the industrial scale production machine/equipment. [1]
Taking into account the above aspects, this paper introduces a part of the theoretical and experimental studies developed on the basis of the first author\'s doctoral thesis, using a new method to simulate magnetic disc deposition for industrial applications
The main purpose of this study is to create and experiment verify a new software simulation environment for the magnetic control sputtering physical deposition process carried out in industrial scale through the flexible production line of glass coating. 2.
At present, theoretical and experimental studies at home and abroad have shown that metal layers (also known as \"spraying\") are deposited on glass substrates under vacuum conditions and are composed of metal oxide layers.
This process allows to obtain a variety of products with different formulations/layers deposited on glass substrates and different thickness variations in the layers of deposited metal materials.
Because of this deposit, one of the Wells
The known properties of the treated glass in this way are the ability to reflect different types of solar radiation (
Ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, etc. )
Like \"low grade\" glass products, this is necessary for sun protection of the housing used in a warm climate, and those that need to improve thermal insulation.
For each product of this type, a specific manufacturing \"formula\" should be used according to a large number of process parameters \".
From this point of view, the existing studies in the relevant literature almost only describe in detail the glass processing on laboratory radio frequency sputtering equipment or pilot manufacturing facilities with a small number of production units (
Usually 1 or up to 2 cells). [1]
Here are two variations of this particular system developed in the laboratory for research. 2. 1.
Research facilities of laboratory equipment for the experimental study of magnetic sputtering synthesis of relevant literature on existing research, used to simulate the phenomena in the magnetic Sputtering Equipment described in Table 1, emphasis was placed on the main factors affecting the process. [2]. Table 1 [2]
This paper mainly introduces the interaction of the target surface during the process of magnetic control sputtering (
See also figure 1 ,[3])
Including formulas that emphasize the complexity of physical phenomena occurring in such facilities.
In order to simulate the process of unfolding in an industrial environment, the simulation-based mathematical model must include all of these interactions and therefore become very complex and impossible to actually use. In fig.
2 Complexity of experimental facilities (
In a system of orioncasting)
From the Research Laboratory (Cornell Nano-
Facilities for science and technology)
It can also be observed [4].
The device is equipped with many sensors that can not only provide experimental results, but also provide accurate values for the trajectory of all ions of the spraying elements.
In addition, the input parameter control is fully determined.
One of the great advantages of laboratory facilities is that they transmit only a wave of charged ions that are full of energy, allowing for separate spraying, with the ability to accurately identify the full set of process parameters, and provide the possibility for careful analysis of the experimental results developed [3], [4].
Unlike these laboratory facilities, in an industrial environment: spraying is continuous and material deposition is carried out with multiple batteries under different process conditions;
The results of multiple rays on the same substrate can only be accumulated by the properties of the material layer where the optical measurement results are discarded [1]. 2. 2.
Research on laboratory pilot plant for glass processing (
For multi-layer coating deposition on both sides of flat glass)
As shown in figure 3.
For oxide coatings, the magnetic reaction sputtering method on the AC current is used.
For high economic benefit, rotating magnetic tubes with metal and ceramic targets were used.
In terms of quality monitoring, optical methods for measuring the properties of transmission and reflection spectra are applied.
By modeling the ecological structure and subsequent reproduction of these parameters, the invum machine can obtain very good coating quality on large glass plates. [5]Laboratory (pilot)
UV100 production line [5](fig. 3)
It is a device consisting of three rooms: load module, deposition module and coating module.
These modules are distinguished by doors that act as valves, and the pressure of each individual module is up to 2*10-5torr.
Pumping system based on turbo-
Molecular pumps that eliminate the possibility of oil pollution.
Also, use turbo-
Molecular pumps are suitable for stable pumping rates within the pressure range necessary for the control spray process. [5]
The loading module is used to load and unload the glass plate and pump it before entering the deposit area.
The deposition module consists of a emitting cathode placed on one side of the module and three flat cathode mounted on the other side.
This makes it possible to install up to 5 different deposition target materials.
The maximum length of the coated object is 800mm.
The deposition module is kept under constant pressure of de 2*10-
5 torr, make sure to eliminate any air pollution. [5]. For the pre-
Processing of sub
In layers, ion sources with energy up to 1000 eV are used.
On the machine as shown in the figure
The gas dispenser is applied, allowing gas production and controlling the flow along the length of the magnet.
As other studies have shown, flow control is important, and the structure of the film deposited with RF sputtering is characterized by a function of gas flow and film thickness. [10]
The machine is equipped with a box that creates a vacuum.
The speed of the box is variable.
The power supply on the vacuum machine can be DC or AC power supply. [5]
However, it is very difficult to develop a working software environment for accurate simulation using this system, because the number of cell deposits in the pilot device is limited (
Usually 1 max 2)
Compared to industrial production facilities that usually have 7, 15, or 22 deposited batteries, since each manufacturing line type has a specific structure, characteristic functional parameters, and different control possibilities. [1]
With regard to the experimental results obtained using the device, in figure 2, the dependence on the deposition rate of titanium oxide at different power and oxygen flow rates is given.
The experiment was carried out on a plane and on a rotating magnet with a length of 800.
From the experimental data, it can be seen that the rotating magnetic tube makes the deposition rate increase by several times the possibility of the flat magnetic tube, and similar results are obtained when depositing silicon oxide. [5]2. 3.
Mathematical modeling of specific processes of magnetic sputtering most current theoretical models and simulation environments are based on P. Sigmund [6]
The most commonly used simulation model based on sigmund\' sformulas is Monte Carlo simulation algorithm.
The thickness distribution of the simulated sputtering layer not only forces the simulation to pass through the transmission of the gas phase, but also forces the initial properties of the simulated particles when they leave the target. [9]
The algorithm/simulation model covers the process of energy transfer in the system and the properties of the materials used. Y(E)= [0. 04/U][alpha](Mt/Mi)S U--
The energy of sublimation.
Minimum height of industrial House: 6, 0 m;
Maximum size of glass substrates according to industry standards PLF and DLF: 3,66x2,54 [m. sup. 2]; 6,00 x 3,30[m. sup. 2];
Minimum size of glass layer: 0,8x0,30 [m. sup. 2];
General glass substrate thickness: 2. 0-12 mm;
Inner width of machining compartment: 850mm [7].
The main operating parameters troubled include: the system input power applied on the cathode represented by Kw; (
By increasing the power, the material deposition rate is proportional to the power of the introduced system);
Plasma gas is used, and helium, neon, ar, krypton, xenon are usually used. (
According to the molarmass of this material, the target is bombarded by particles with higher energy, resulting in a greater impact, a higher spray rate and a high deposition rate); reaction gas (
In some products, oxide or nitrogen oxide layers can be found in addition to metal.
In order to obtain these layers, soxygen or nitrogen was introduced in the system in response to the spraying on the target surface, and the optical and electrical properties of the coated film depend on the properties and flow of these gases [11]).
Simulation of the four deposed materials and comparison of experimental result sets [M. sub. 1], [M. sub. 2],[M. sub. 3], [M. sub. 4](
For the experimental work carried out within four months, only part of the result set is included in the paper)
As shown in Tables 3 and 4.
Table 4 and table 5 and Figure 5 also give relative errors and appropriate deviations between the simulation results and the experimental results
Figure 13 and Figure 1214. 4.
Conclusion in the industrial environment, it is not possible to use the simulation model proposed in the literature until now, because the laboratory and industrial experimental equipment/manufacturing facilities are different.
Laboratory experimental equipment is usually used to fully characterize a single experiment that has been carried out by a single crushing of a single deposited material type.
In addition, in industrial environments, the production line includes a large number of interconnected RF sputtering tanks/chambers in order to continuously deposit different materials under specific conditions for processing gas pressure and underlying speed.
Due to the different duration of the experiment, another major difference between the way the experiment was conducted is that the experimental laboratory equipment is dedicated to studying the reaction that lasts only a few seconds, compared to the actual industrial scale equipment that responded for several consecutive days.
These problems are solved through the specific methods of this paper.
Therefore, this paper expounds a new method to study the process of the sputtering discharge in the flexible production line of industrial scale.
To this end, a new mathematical model and simulation software was developed.
Based on this new mathematical model and simulation software, the film glass coating carried out in industrial environment is theoretically studied, and the results are verified through the experimental study conducted in industrial field.
The development of an emulator for the entire process of industrial-scale facilities represents a way to study the possibility of optimizing the process, allowing the implementation of new product facilities to be set up less time, from weeks to hours or even less.
Using the simulator proposed in this paper, for the reduction of the amount of energy consumed, the coating material and the ratio that does not meet the product batch, a significant improvement in the product performance parameters is possible.
Main differences in experimental methods for vacuum deposition process of laboratory research equipment (
Presented in the literature)
Industrial processing equipment (
Presented in the form of the current paper)
Including focusing on the study of the interaction between target materials and particles in the vacuum environment of laboratory equipment and particle trajectories, the effective deposition process on the substrate of industrial equipment and the thickness and uniformity of the abandoned layer are respectively introduced.
The second main aspect of the new method includes a mathematical formula used to simulate the final result of the deposition process, and this paper uses specific industrial standards (CIELAB)
In order to characterize the light passing through the deposited layer on the substrate, this method is necessary in order to first verify the possibility of mathematical formalization through experimental studies conducted on actual industrial scale production equipment, secondly, specific industrial means are used to characterize in this type of equipment.
Optical spectrometer).
To this end, the working principle of the simulation software is to first predict the thickness of the discarded layer in the magnetic control process based on the international system D65, and then evaluate the layer thickness from the measured white light coordinates ,(
Calculate the color of the light generated by the abandoned layer)
The optical metering instrument means to measure the value of light passing through the substrate and the destroyed layer.
All simulation results are verified on an industrial flexible production line.
Due to the application of this new concept to industrial scale treatment systems, the control of the deposition process has been improved, thus improving the uniformity of the discarded layers from [+ or -]10% to [+ or -]
The difference between 2% and theoretical and applied evaporation energy was identified as two materials. DOI: 10. 2507/27th. daaam. proceedings. 120 5.
This work was partially supported by strategic grantPOSDRU/159/1. 5/S/137070 (2014)
Ministry of Education, Romania, United
Funded by the European Social Fund-
Investment in personnel in the business programme of the Human Resources Development Department2013\". 6. References [1]I. Spataru--
Contribution to modeling and simulation of flexible manufacturing systems \"doctoral thesis, Budapest University of Technology, September 2016 [J ,[2]N. Brenning, D. Lundin, M. A. Raadu, C. Huo, C. Vitelaru, G. D. Stancu, T. Minea, and U.
Helmersson, understanding the deposition rate loss in high power pulsed magnetic control sputtering, plasma source Science &technology (Print), (21)
, 2,2012, ID number025005, [3]
Murtaza Saleem, Overview of RF sputtering systems (DaON1000S)
University of Management Science, Lahore ,[4][5]V. Kozlov, E. Yadin, G.
Taiminsh and V.
Fomin, new vacuum equipment for multi-layer coating deposition on large area glass, vacuum coating machine Association 505/856-
7188 and 50 annual technical meetings (2007)ISSN 0737-5921, 2007 [6]P.
Sigmund, ion bombardment sputtering: theoretical concepts, Chapter 2, particle bombardment sputtering I, edited by R.
Berry, 47 volumes of applied physics 9 series theme-71, Springer-Verlag, 2005 [7]
* Large area coating solution, laibaode Opticsdocumentation 2016, Buhler Alzenau GmbH, www. buhlergroup. com [8]*** CIE 15--
Technical Report--
International Lighting Association, ISBN 3-901-906-33-
Washington, United States [9 [9]S. Mahieu, G. Buyle, D. Depla, S. Heirwegh, P. Ghekiere, R.
DeGryse, \"Monte Carlo simulation of Zhongyuan transmission in DCmagnetron sputtering\", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Part B of physical Study: interaction with beams of materials and atoms, Volume 243 2006, aisiwei [10]S.
Van StrobergP. Leroy, D.
Depla, \"Effect of ofoxygen flow rate and film thickness on the texture and microstructure of the deposited ceria film\", in solid Film, Volume 553,201411]M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H.
B FrankenbergOcker, J.
Stollenwerk, \"dependence of oxygen flow on the optical and electrical properties of DC-
In solid Film, Volume 326, issue 1-
Month, 1998, Elsevier Ionut Spataru, Adrian villescu, management engineering technical system for faculty and staff of Cezara Coman, Cozmin Cristoiu Andrei Ivan, Politehnica University of Budapest Splaiul independent Tei 313, plus 060042, figure: area 6 of Romania
1 collision of target surface [3]Caption: Fig.
Laboratory research equipment [2]4]Caption: Fig. 3.
UV100 for laboratory use 【5]Caption: Fig. 4.
Ti02 deposition speed at different power and oxygen flow rates [5]Caption: Fig. 5.
Experimental measurement and theory based on Monte Carlo model [6]
Description: Figure 6 actual industrial scale flexible manufacturing production line for Thin Layer glass coating prepared by RF sputtering [7]
Description: Figure 7 functional principle, actual industrial processing unit and virtual prototype of flexible components for thin-layer glass coating prepared by a magnetic control sputtering process [1], [7]Caption: Fig.
8 working principle and specific process parameter setting of flexible production line/unit [1]Caption: Fig.
Figure 10 title of simulation flow chart: Figure
11 beam path description: Figure12 a.
Simulation of A *, B * values and comparison of experimental results.
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