reinventing xerox corp.

by:ZHENHUA     2020-03-31
Name the company that manages fashion and Xerox
Accepted it. -
Layoffs, diversity, benchmarking management, andengineering.
Employees are empowered, motivated and organized across
Functional work team. Non-
Core functions have been outsourced.
Quality has become the religion of the enterprise.
It sounds like a life in the Dilbert comics, but in places like Xerox, people go to the bank all the way with a smile.
Now that Xerox costs the equivalent or less of its strongest competitors and has a range of popular digital copiers and printers, Xerox\'s sales and profits are booming.
The company\'s share price has risen 1980 in the past two years, completely missing the 150% boom.
The decline and rise of Xerox reflects what has been happening in the corporate world of the United States and greatly helps explain why the United States has regained the title of the world\'s economic superpower.
Two weeks ago, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan told Congress that the US economy is in the best state he has ever seen, not only because of the wisdom of government economic policy, but also because of the vitality of the small
Although analysts agree that these three factors are almost all contributing factors.
It\'s also important that so many companies, including Ford Motor.
Citigroup, Sears Roebuck
Like Xerox, they have emerged from the economic crisis.
The source of economic strength and strength.
Due to the continuous and repeated attempts of the company\'s self-renewal-
Some of them are mischievous and misleading, others are powerful and profound ---
American workers are once again the most productive country in the world. S.
Technology has regained its it advantage, and American brands have also been sought after by consumers around the world.
\"The reason why the US economy is so strong today is that businesses are able to change, learn, adapt and get rid of old models that no longer apply,\" said Paul . \".
Mr. Aller, chairman and chief executive of Xerox, said.
\"This is actually a very simple story: We tried a lot of different things and threw away things that didn\'t work,\" G said . \"
Richard Thoman was appointed president of Xerox last year after serving as RJR Nabisco Co.
American Express.
International Business Machine Company
\"But those companies that are in trouble have an absolutely profound impact on our company\'s performance now.
\"David Nadler of Delta consulting group remembers stealing Asia with a small group of Xerox executives ten years ago to learn Japanese management technology.
\"There was a feeling at the time that US management was bankrupt and US industry was moving towards an inevitable decline,\" Nadler said . \".
\"But a radical shift has taken place,\" so that executives in Japan and Europe have flocked to the United States to study the way the United States is doing business.
Business bookshelves are filled with books trying to explain the secrets of American success.
Basic elements--
Do a lot of things that you are best at, outsource other things, empower employees, hold them accountable, and re-
Engineering process of cost and quality-
Can be found anywhere in a successful company.
In fact, some technologies are borrowed from Germany and Japan.
But if Xerox has any indication, the advantage of American companies in the global market these days is that they have found the hard way --
Integrate the process of adaptation and remodeling into the corporate culture and the process of starting as a whole
The revolution of time continues.
American genius is to be tried. and-
Error Management--
Xerox is a good example, \"said Charles Plosser, dean of business school at the University of Rochester, who is down the Jersey river of Xerox.
Rich history in his 40 s
Xerox has gone through a familiar path, from being smart to being complacent, from despair to a final reshaping.
With the launch of the 914 copier, it could turn into six normal copiers
Just press the button and the name of the copy becomes synonymous with the copy.
The company\'s gross profit margin of 70% reflects its virtual monopoly in a fast-growing new market, accounting for 97% of the world market share.
Xerox\'s shares topped the list of popular shares \"beautiful 50\" during the Wall Street listing.
The years of the 1960 s.
In many ways, Xerox is a model company in the United States that meets the needs of its workforce with generous pay and benefits, and is generous in his hometown of Rochester, New York. Y.
Its sales team-
Proud, smooth, tallcommissioned --
Inspired countless imitators.
A company Research Laboratory in Palo Alto, California
Scientists are encouraged, even if its innovation doesn\'t seem to have much work to do at the forefront of copying knowledge.
All of this began to collapse in the middle. 1970s.
The Justice Department has launched an antitrust investigation that has diverted the attention of management, suppressed the company\'s competitive impulses and forced it to share its own knowledgeHow to compete with competitors.
Companies like Apple.
And Microsoft.
By commercializing the breakthroughs made by Xerox labs, new industries have been created.
All over the world
Loyal customers are increasingly frustrated with the design and manufacture of such a bad expensive machine that copying the wrong message \"clear paper path\" becomes a metaphor for American companies to ignore customers.
At the same time, strong competitors have emerged. Japan Inc.
Has begun to pour into the market at low prices
Cost machine for Canonand Savin Co.
Attractive lease terms are provided.
What is even more disturbing is IBM and Eastman Kodak.
Xerox\'s neighbor in Rochester entered the market at a complex new high
The volume machine provides better copy quality, higher speed and more functions at a price of 20% lower than Xerox.
Carlos Pasqual, a rising star in Xerox\'s European business, recalled that in the 1970 s he came to the company\'s headquarters with some disturbing stories about the long termcost copiers.
\"I met with the engineers and they told me not to worry, these machines are just a joke.
\"They have no clue,\" he recalls . \" Pasquale is now the head of Xerox\'s customer business in the United States.
At about the same time, arall, who is also a European executive, suggested at a corporate strategy meeting in Rochester that Xerox might have to cut prices to stay competitive.
He smiled and recalled how he was rejected for \"wanting to ruin the profit margin of the industry.
\"The reality that no one was willing to admit at the time was that the manufacturing industry was very bad, the research was out of touch with the products, the company\'s headquarters was bloated, smug, and the profits evaporated in front of our eyes, arall said.
Although the company\'s financial statements continue to tell a favourable story, the results have been artificially exaggerated as many customers have been encouraged to switch from rental copiers to the purchase of copiers.
In fact, gross profit margin-
What a company has after paying for labor and materials ---
Xerox\'s global market share of copiers has fallen from 10% to 70%, hovering above 10%.
David Carnes, then chairman of the company and later Minister of Education, told employees that unless radical measures were taken, Xerox would soon be forced out of the industry it invented.
Employees say OutKearns dates back to the start of the company\'s annual staff meeting at the company\'s manufacturing center in Webster, NY. Y.
In the spring of the recession in 1980.
At the time, Xerox was increasing production at a new low.
The price of the 3300 copier should be the answer to the Japanese attack.
Unfortunately, the company has not really designed a lowcost machine --
It just simplifies one of its old designs and then makes it with a lot of cheap, shoddy parts.
Even so, the price of $7,300 is still significantly higher than the competition, but it is still far lower than the price that the commissioned sales team believes is worth the time.
When employees gather under tents in the parking lot, they can see how bad the idle railcars in the distance are, and each package has an unsold or unsaleable 3300.
After the meeting began, Frank Ainos, the union store housekeeper and tester on the 3300 line, stood up and faced the head of Xerox with a simple question: \"David, why don\'t you ask what we think about it?
We could have told you it was a pile of rubbish.
At the moment of complete humiliation, Carnes recalled, he vowed to completely change his company to make sure it didn\'t happen again.
He launched one activity after another, involving every employee of Xerox in activities to improve quality, reduce costs and focus on customer satisfaction.
In Webster, Enos became a touchstone for the Kearns campaign. -
Managers began to seek his approval for almost all production changes, and executives flew in from their corporate headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.
Seek his ideas for the design of the new machine.
They did whatever he and his colleagues suggested.
\"This is a real eye --
\"Since then, the way management has started,\" recalls Inos, who recently retired 35 years after Xerox.
The process of updating was very smooth.
In many cases, Kearns is worried that it will be cynical, poorly executed, and out-and-out resistance.
For example, a new combination of laser printers and photocopiers has been introduced, demonstrating the first outcome of the company\'s quality efforts, but it turns out that it does not have many big markets.
Then the desperate attempt to enter the computer industry failed. An ill-
Before the last part of the business was finally sold this spring, the company ended up spending more than $1 billion.
In the process, the main production facilities were shut down, executives were fired, technology was wasted, and the company\'s share price was falling.
The front line staff constantly patted it on the chin.
More than 1980 jobs have been cut in wages since 30,000, and another 100 million have been canceled in the next two years.
Union production workers in the Rochester area have become so anxious about their work that they have agreed to cut their starting salary significantly, with no salary increase other than the cost of living ---
All the rewards are No. layoff clause.
Through all this, Kaines, Arrell and the firm Corporate restructuring team
Engineers have won the support of enough employees to implant a culture of customer-focused and continuous improvement at all levels of the company.
What did David Kearns\'s hobby horse start? -quality --
\"For the whole business, from the farthest corner of the factory workshop to the strategic planning group at the headquarters, it really has become an absolutely unremitting organizational principle, he has been the director of the CIA since he resigned.
The director\'s point of view was echoed by Frank Ainos\'s three children, who recently gathered at a nearby Italian restaurant, Clementes, while still working at Xerox for a family dinner.
\"For a long time, I think all this quality stuff is just a way to appease us and smoke,\" said son Carmen . \" When he recalled how he was fired at Xerox, he could now smile as the 3300 line was closed after his father\'s famous speech.
\"But when I started to see real changes and my work became safer and more satisfied, I became a convert.
This authorization is true.
\"In the case of Carmen Ainos, The authorization came up in the form of management work, overseeing a new group in Webster, which stripped the old copiers to the steel frame, then equip them with refurbished motors and new electronic equipment.
Although Xerox has a long time to re-manufacture the production line in Webster, it is a dirty and dangerous job involving toxic cleaning solvents, an expensive environmental hazard.
But after Carmen Ainos and a group of colleagues came up with a new way to use robots and freeze --dry carbon-
Carbon dioxide particles, work faster, cleaner and cheaper now-
This also gives Xerox a competitive advantage in foreign companies that have no manufacturing capacity.
There is no doubt that the Inos children inherited from their father have some sense of responsibility for the success of the new Xerox, but the strong network of economic incentives reinforces this.
Including a company-
In recent years, the total salary of almost all employees has reached 10%, plus the work
Team bonuses for production workers can range from 5% to 25% or more for some managers.
The daughter who assembled the ink, Valerie Ainos.
Jet Cartridges for Xerox printer business often receive small bonuses at the local Ramada hotel with a movie pass or weekend.
The second son, Michael Inos, is an assembler who can quote for Xerox stock that has accumulated in the company\'s savings account.
Officials at Aller and other Xerox companies say these economic incentives, as well as the promise of job security, it\'s crucial to sort out the thousands of small ideas that give schle and other companies the ability to do better, faster and cheaper.
\"It\'s not that American managers suddenly become smart,\" Allaire said . \".
\"We found ways to release the creative energy of everyone in the company and use it for a period of time.
\"These efforts have eliminated the disadvantage of Xerox\'s past Cost of 15% to 45%.
Year after year, they continue to cut the cost of producing copiers by 7%.
This means 4 cents for typical corporate customersper-
Copies of most payments through 1970 and 1980 were cut by half-
By the end of the decade, it is heading towards a penny per page. Quality-
It is wise that for customers like Jay Butler, the difference is certainly obvious.
When Butler worked as a facility manager for an aerospace company in the 1980 s, he was so frustrated by the daily breakdown of Xerox machines that he persuaded the company to switch to Kodak--
Millions of dollars were saved in the process.
Now doing similar work at Phillips Publishing.
At Potomac, Butler says he has been replacing Kodak machines with Xerox machines.
New Xerox offers comparable prices and quality, as well as color capabilities, which allows Phillips to save time and money in making professional newsletters, he said.
Reliability has also improved, Butler said, \"We haven\'t received a service complaint for a long time.
\"In Mexico, an energetic and engaging top PlantOscar de la Parra in his thirties
Some engineers are wearing fashionable European suits and he is full of pride in the company when he leads visitors to his field.
He explained how the factory, which was almost closed in 1990, became the world\'s most efficient Xerox factory.
Just-in-
Robot, laser-time inventory system
Guided assembly and computerized production systems can produce 48 variants of the same copier on one production line.
A banner at the top of the store announces that the production quality is high enough to obtain the highest level of international certification.
Of the 2,000 employees, 200 have an engineering degree and are responsible not only for the operation of the plant, but also for the design changes of all the medium-sized companies of Xerox
Photocopiers from all over the world.
Surprisingly, the plant is not in the United States, Europe or even Japan.
It is located hundreds of miles north of Mexico City in Aguascalientes, a dusty industrial town.
The recent success of the \"Aguas\" facility shows a lot of what is needed to compete successfully in today\'s global market.
Of course, getting cheap labor is part of the story ---
A worker in Argus calculated the benefit and profit share, and the cost of Xerox was about 1-
Fifth out of $25.
The average cost in Webster is 59 per hour.
But according to de la Parra, direct labor accounts for 20% to 25% of the cost of new copiers.
Even with the salary aside, his factory can still produce copiers with less manpower
Working hours and expenses than other Xerox factories-
Have a good or better record in quality.
Thanks to this performance, Xerox transferred most of the wire harness production to Aguas, where dozens of women completed a hard job, string together dozens of colorful wires that make up the central nervous system of the copier.
But right next to where they work is a new million.
The dollar machine, developed for two years, can produce a new type of wire harness in less than a minute, and the worker takes 20 minutes to produce it.
\"This is not some textile mills in the United States. S.
\"Once labor costs change, the border will increase the risk,\" he said . \".
\"We are not chasing cheap labor. This is a long-
Long-term investment in creativity, engineering and quality.
\"The difference between a truly global company and a company that only has factories, suppliers or customers in other countries is this.
By diversifying its business globally, Xerox has learned to make the most of the services offered in each region ---
Whether it\'s talent, technology, low cost or access to local markets and capital.
At the same time, by focusing all the production or engineering work of each product line in one or two locations, Xerox is able to achieve considerable efficiency and quality control
Mass production.
For Xerox company managers like de la Parra, the task of \"thinking global, acting local\" has become a comprehensive task
Time is tight.
In fact, Aguas employees meet with their peers from all over the world every day to ensure that the \"best practices\" developed by one factory spread quickly to all other factories.
The walls of the factory are covered with the same print as Webster\'s sales and production.
They are spit out from computers that are increasingly connected to global networks using common standards and software.
At the same time, delapala and his Xerox colleagues are keen to create a local infrastructure for Xerox\'s operations and customize the basic model based on local conditions ---
This strategy is very different from Japanese and European companies that have opened factories in agus.
Production workers, mainly high school graduates from nearby agricultural towns, received three to six months of skills training before joining the apprenticeship team, followed by often years of English training
Language class.
Like their counterparts in the Netherlands, Brazil or Rochester, they actively compete to improve quality
Ideas for improvement that will win them bonuses and annual baking tour of the company-off.
At the same time, the professionals and managers of Mexico\'s top universities are also from them.
The most promising recruits, such as Drapala, were eventually sent to work at other Xerox companies around the world before returning to top jobs in Agua.
Importance of geographical diversity-
The fact that people and ideas flow in all directions-
A few years ago, when rival Canon beat Xerox into the market with high-quality color copiers, he was rushed home.
When Webster\'s main engineering team rushed to catch up, one of Fuji\'s teams --Xerox --
Japanese joint venture of the company-
Invested in this task and launched a competitive product within a year.
Due to their efforts, Xerox\'s color sales were $1.
Last year, it was 5 billion, up nearly 50%.
\"Fuji saved our bacon in color,\" one executive declared . \".
Xerox\'s global expansion is more than just its own production and engineering facilities.
Key suppliers also play an increasingly important role in not only producing computer chips and motors, but also producing the main components Xerox uses to make
Directly participate in the development of new products and the development of production processes.
Many of these suppliers need a quality plan certified by Xerox inspectors.
They are connected to Xerox\'s central nervous system through telephone lines and computers that exchange information about production, bills and design changes.
One such supplier is Schaffstall manufacturing.
It\'s from a humble-
Story metal building behind Collins Agricultural Community High School in northern New YorkY.
When Jim Schaffstall\'s father acquired the company in 1972, it was a small tool and mold manufacturer that served the local Chevrolet factory with 15 employees and sales of $2 million.
Today, Schaffstall has 145 employees, including more than 20 engineers and two full-time employees, mainly because it works for Xerox.
Time software programmer
Sales last year exceeded $15 million, recently growing at a rate of 20% a year.
Schaffstall spent more than $5 million on new equipment to serve Xerox accounts.
These investments have been upgraded from $30,000 to $10 for old tool machines, cutting costs by 15% to the millions of dollars for robots --
The operating coating machine allows the company to use one-
Labor time per quarter. Long-
However, Xerox\'s term contract makes it easy for Schaffstall to recover his investment.
In turn, the new machine allows him to attract other customers, thereby increasing sales and reducing unit costs.
\"Xerox really forced us to upgrade, and in the process, we were prepared to stay competitive,\" Schaffstall said . \" He noticed that almost all the companies his father had competed with in the past were closed.
According to consulting firm David Nadler, through a network of alliances with major suppliers such as Schaffstall, schle and other successful US companies have been able to achieve most economies of scale, without the need to buy all the uneconomical things that are trying to do everything --house --
Vertical old model-
Integrated company.
For example, by purchasing many of its smallest \"personal\" copiers in Asia, Xerox has surpassed Cannon, the lower category it has long recognized
Cost competitors.
Instead of trying to sell all the machines to the company through its own sales force, Xerox succumbed to customer preferences and sold many machines through middlemen and retailers.
\"For a long time, we have confused scale, scale is critical, not scale,\" Nadler said . \".
Redefining Culture John eldt rarely puts forward the stereotype of the company\'s employees-not the in-your-
Faced with bluffs and daily prior meditation, rather than radical eco-politics, it\'s not an adventure holiday like an Amazon rafting trip.
But in many ways, engineers are 35.
A year\'s career tracks the ups and downs of Xerox.
Eldt\'s first summer job was at Xerox in 1963, a Webster native, and he figured out how to speed up the original 914 copier.
At the end of 1970, he was detailed on the 3300 copier that helped Frank Ainos finally blow the whistle ---
A machine\'s career with Elter is almost as disastrous as the company\'s profits.
After digging for a few years, he re-
Appeared in late 1980 as head of a new high design team
Fast copier with touch function
The screen control panel will eventually break Kodak\'s control over high-end products
The volume of the copier market ended.
However, by the beginning of 1990, Elter, like many of Xerox\'s companies, had concluded that at a time when the copier had become irrelevant, the company had become competitive in producing the copier.
As people increasingly rely on computers, printers and faxes to generate, transmit, produce and store most files, it seems that the old light and light copiers are on the path of carbon paper.
Quietly, almost sneaky, eldt began to piece together some money from various budgets and began to design a \"digital\" machine that converts all documents into a series of 0 and 1.
This machine can be used as a comprehensive Fax, scanner, printer and copier for the office by connecting the office computer and telephone system.
Determined to avoid past mistakes, Elter began to create a culture for his new development team, more like the starting point of Silicon Valley --
More than a clumsy bureaucratic company.
He rented an old office building at the intersection of the highway and slowly began to build independent employees.
Engineers and doctors with ideas.
There is no private office, no designated parking space, no tie or title.
Closed meetings are prohibited in favor of open and ongoing brainstorming meetings in conference rooms named after the Rochester area lakes.
Researchers from Palo Alto are also involved in the bill.
The goal of the project known as the \"lake\" is as radical as the management style: not only to develop a new machine, but also to develop a new system of design, production and service.
However, despite the group\'s ambitious ambitions, it quickly fell into some fairly flat issues: determining the right amount of wax for new Toner;
Develop software that can be connected to the office computer network;
Create a new entity
A laser as big as a mustard seed.
It took more time in the end. -seven years --
More money. -$400 million --
Produce more than anyone has planned.
There are more than 500 patent applications related to the project, and the software of the machine is packaged in 3 million lines of computer code.
In a speech in New York on last April, before the new document center 200 was finally introduced by a tearful Elter, 265 babies were born with members of the Lakes team.
In the eyes of untrained people, the new machine seems to be a miracle of simplicity and convenience.
Using commands dictated on a normal PC, it can display clear documents from any source in any number in a dozen different configurations.
Special installation is not required for the machine--
Plug and Play.
Once put into use, service technicians hundreds of miles away can diagnose and fix most of the problems over telephone lines.
From the beginning, the lake design process was driven by the need to be able to make machines faster and cheaper.
Instead of 1,250 parts in comparable light
Lens machines, which have 250 components in the Lake machines provided by only 35 major suppliers, Schaffstall.
There used to be 42 pieces of work with three printed wire boards.
The harness comes from the new automation machine in Agua.
The whole thing is so simple. In fact, it can only be done in an hour with 7 tools available at the corner hardware store.
Computer, hand
Hand-held scanners and bars
The code on each part eliminates all paperwork, as well as any need to maintain parts inventory for more than a day or two.
So far, 265 of the document center\'s revenue has exceeded the company\'s forecast, with sales accounting for half of all sales in the category.
With orders already overstocked, a second shift has been added to Webster\'s assembly line, and Xerox\'s factory in Venray, the Netherlands, is planning a new shift.
However, the importance of the Lakes machine is far beyond its drive for Xerox\'s quarterly sales and profits.
It has helped the Xerox brand regain its luster and once again become the darling of Wall Street.
It has a real promise that ultimately allows Xerox to jump out of the copier industry, where technology is mature and prices compete fiercely, becoming the center of prosperity and higher profitability-tech industry.
Brian E. said: \"The difference between the old Xerox and the new Xerox is that now we are betting on the company every time we launch a major new product series . \"
Stern is a British man in charge of all Xerox\'s office machines.
Winning those bets comes down to key skills like software development, marketing, and people management that American companies do well in, says Stern.
So he and his colleagues at Xerox see that their biggest challenge in the digital age will not come from the remaining foreign competitors in the copier industry ---
Japanese canon or European Oce--
But from HewlettPackard Corp.
American computer giant.
\"What American companies have done over the past decade is amazing, just surprising,\" Stern said.
Description: Rise and Fall of Xue Ke (
No graphics for this)
Description: X marks the location of Xerox, which has returned to the profit map.
Description: the comments of Frank Ainos (left), the union store steward, caused the management to think.
Despite his retirement after 35 years, his children, Carmen Ainos, Valerie Ainos and Michael Ainos, are still working at Xerox.
Description: John eldt, vice president of new business development, began to create a culture that is more like a Silicon Valley startup --
More than the company\'s bureaucracy.
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