PVD vacuum coating machine process principle and application explanation
The PVD vacuum coating machine is a surface treatment process that sputters, evaporates or ion-plates titanium, gold, graphite, crystals and other metals or non-metals, gases and other materials on the substrate in a vacuum. Compared with the traditional chemical coating method, vacuum coating has many advantages: it does not pollute the environment and is a green and environmentally friendly process; it is not harmful to the operator; the film is firm and dense, with strong corrosion resistance and uniform film thickness. The commonly used methods in vacuum coating technology include evaporation coating (including arc evaporation, electron gun evaporation, resistance wire evaporation, etc.) and sputtering coating (including DC magnetron sputtering, intermediate frequency magnetron sputtering, radio frequency sputtering, etc.), collectively referred to as physical Vapor deposition (PVD).
The corresponding chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is called CVD technology. In the industry, it is usually called IP (Ion Plating) ion coating, because in PVD technology, various gas ions and metal ions participate in the film formation process and play an important role. In order to emphasize the role of ions, they are collectively referred to as ion coating. Vacuum coating is a technique for preparing thin film materials. In the vacuum chamber, the atoms of the material are separated from the heat source and hit the surface of the object to be plated. The mask technology is used to prepare aluminum film on the optical disc, and the metal film is prepared on the printed circuit board. The thin film is prepared in vacuum, including the coating of elemental or composite thin films such as crystalline metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Although CVD also uses vacuum methods such as reduced pressure, low pressure, or plasma, vacuum coating generally refers to the deposition of thin films by physical methods. There are three forms of vacuum coating, namely evaporation coating, sputtering coating and ion plating. Evaporative coating is a coating that deposits substances on a solid surface through heating and evaporation. This method was proposed by M. Faraday in 1857 and has become one of the commonly used coating techniques. Evaporating materials such as metals and compounds are placed in a crucible or hung on a hot wire as the evaporation source, and metals, ceramics, and plastics are waiting for the plating substrate to be placed in front of the crucible. After pumping the system to high vacuum, heat the crucible to evaporate the material. The atoms or molecules of the vaporized substance are deposited on the surface of the substrate by condensation. The thickness of the film varies from a few hundred angstroms to a few microns. The thickness of the film is determined by the evaporation rate of the evaporation source and the evaporation time (or load), and is related to the distance between the source and the substrate. For large-area coatings, a rotating substrate or multiple evaporation sources are usually used to ensure the uniformity of the film thickness. The distance from the evaporation source to the substrate should be less than the mean free path of vapor molecules in the residual gas to avoid chemical reactions caused by the collision of vapor molecules with residual gas molecules. The average kinetic energy of steam molecules is about 0.1-0.2ev.
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