(PVD magnetron sputtering coating machine) working principle of magnetron sputtering
The working principle of magnetron sputtering: Magnetron sputtering belongs to the category of glow discharge, which uses the principle of cathode sputtering for coating. The film particles originate from the cathode sputtering effect of argon ions on the cathode target material in the glow discharge. After the argon ions sputter down the target atoms, they are deposited on the surface of the component to form the required film. The principle of magnetron is to use the special distribution of the orthogonal electromagnetic field to control the electronic trajectory in the electric field, so that the electron becomes a cycloid motion in the orthogonal electromagnetic field, thus greatly increasing the probability of collision with gas molecules.
The mechanism of sputtering:
The phenomenon of using high-energy particles (mostly gas positive ions accelerated by an electric field) to hit a solid surface (target) to cause solid atoms (molecules) to be ejected from the surface is called sputtering. The sputtering phenomenon has been recognized by people for a long time. Through a large number of experimental studies of predecessors, we have drawn the following conclusions about this important physical phenomenon:
(1) The sputtering rate increases with the increase of incident ion energy; and when the ion energy increases to a certain extent, due to the ion implantation effect, the sputtering rate will decrease accordingly;
(2) The size of the sputtering rate is related to the quality of the incident particles:
(3) When the energy of incident ions is lower than a certain critical value (threshold), sputtering will not occur;
(4) The energy of sputtering atoms is many times greater than the energy of evaporating atoms;
(5) When the energy of incident ions is very low, the angular distribution of sputtering atoms does not completely conform to the law of cosine distribution. The angular distribution is also related to the direction of incident ions. Atoms sputtered from a single crystal target tend to concentrate in the direction of maximum crystal density.
(6) Because the mass of electrons is very small, even if the target material is bombarded with extremely high energy electrons, sputtering will not occur. Since sputtering is an extremely complex physical process, there are many factors involved. Although many studies have been conducted on the sputtering mechanism and many theories have been put forward for a long time, it is difficult to fully explain the sputtering phenomenon.
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