With the advancement of science and technology and the improvement of manufacturing processes, electronic products such as smart phones and digital cameras have gradually become important consumer products for residents. The acceleration of their replacement and shortening of product cycles have led to the steady development of the optical component industry. In recent years, the rapid development of security monitoring equipment, vehicle lenses, aerospace and aviation has also promoted the pvd vacuum optical coating machinetechnology of the optical component industry.
The optical film is realized in a high-vacuum coating chamber. Conventional coating processes require raising the substrate temperature (usually about 300°C); while more advanced technologies, such as ion-assisted deposition (IAD), can be performed at room temperature. The IAD process not only produces films with better physical properties than conventional coating processes, but also can be applied to substrates made of plastic. The traditional method of thin film deposition has always been thermal evaporation, or the use of resistance heating evaporation sources or the use of electron beam evaporation sources. The characteristics of the film are mainly determined by the energy of the deposited atoms, which in traditional evaporation is only about 0.1 eV. IAD deposition leads to the direct deposition of ionized vapor and adds activation energy to the growing film, usually on the order of 50 eV. The ion source directs the beam from the ion gun to the substrate surface and the growing film to improve the film characteristics of traditional electron beam evaporation.
The optical properties of the film, such as refractive index, absorption and laser damage threshold, mainly depend on the microstructure of the film. The film material, residual air pressure, and substrate temperature may all affect the microstructure of the film. If the mobility of vapor deposited atoms on the surface of the substrate is low, the film will contain micropores. When the film is exposed to humid air, these pores are gradually filled with water vapor.
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