Main components of evaporation vacuum coating equipment
Evaporation vacuum coating machine is mainly composed of vacuum chamber and vacuum system. The vacuum chamber includes evaporation source (evaporation heater), substrate and substrate frame, substrate heater, power supply, evaporation ship, electrode rod, etc. The vacuum system includes rough pumping, medium pumping and fine pumping, including mechanical pump, roots pump, diffusion pump or molecular pump respectively.
The coating material is placed in vacuum and the evaporation source is heated and evaporated through the evaporation source under the condition of high vacuum in the room. When the average free path of steam molecules in the vacuum chamber is greater than the linear size, the steam atoms and molecules of the coating material escape from the surface of the evaporation source and are rarely collided by other atoms or molecules and obstacles, so they can directly reach the surface of the substrate. Due to the low temperature of the substrate, The vapor particles of the film material condense on the film.
In order to improve the adhesion of evaporation molecules to the substrate, the substrate can be activated by appropriate heating or ion cleaning. The physical process of vacuum evaporation coating from material evaporation and transportation to coating is as follows:
(1) Convert other forms of energy into heat energy in various ways, heat, evaporate or sublimate the membrane material into gaseous particles (atoms, molecules or free radicals) with certain energy (0.1-0.3ev):
(2) The gas particles leave the surface of the film material and are transported to the substrate surface in a straight line at a comparable speed without collision;
(3) The gas particles coalesce on the surface of the substrate to form a solid film;
(4) The atoms that make up the film rearrange or form chemical bonds.
Daily vacuum coating machine adopts evaporation technology to coat aluminum, magnesium fluoride, gold and silver. Because of its low melting point, it is convenient for rapid evaporation and sublimation.
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